AS in psychology is when a problem is so subtle that we cannot imagine what this problem is but even so there is some awareness of something being wrong. It is as though we cannot see the problem consciously but unconsciously there is a feeling of disturbance. The disturbance is rightly assumed to be a problem but at the same time because it is unconscious it cannot be located. When the mind experiences this state we are faced with the old problem of nature abhorring a vacuum or not knowing. When faced with this vacuum there is a strong tendency of the mind to invent a problem that is knowable. This is AS; rather than not know what this unconscious feeling is the mind invents a problem that can be defined and known even though this is pure invention the mind is satisfied. As a result of this substitution we now have what appears to be a very real problem such as anger, depression, addictions of various kinds and many other possibilities. The idea that alcohol addiction is a disease and can never be cured is not true, the problem is that the original problem is not known and a substitution is created. Once created it becomes so convincing that we may never see or be aware of the real problem. The real problem turns out to be the problem behind all the problems of the world. To understand this it is necessary to understand the relationship between the physical sensations of the body and the meaning that the mind uses as a substitute and superimposes over the physical sensations, the result of which becomes indistinguishable from reality. This is how our individual sense of reality whatever that may be is created. The physical sensations of the body are there so that we can navigate the physical world but once AS is created it is as though reality has been hijacked by whatever meaning we may attribute to the physical sensations. Sensation plus meaning = reality. Meaning can be constructed to be anything we want. Meaning or beliefs are part of this substitution in that whatever belief we may hold can only exist as the result of a memory from the past. This memory of the past is related to something that we believe we experienced that is used in the present to give meaning to whatever feeling or physical sensations that may arise. The mind holds the memory of everything that ever happened but these memories are often wildly inaccurate. When an inaccurate memory is triggered a flood of physical sensations washes through the body and is experienced as negative thoughts and feelings. The sensations of the body is like a charge of electricity that gives a sense of absolute meaning. In other words something that was invented is added to physical sensation and becomes absolute in that we no longer have any awareness of the substitution or fantasy that has occurred and is now taken to be real. I assume this substitution happened a very long time ago at the time when the shift from animal to animal/human happened. Korzibsky refers to this as time binding when humans began to use and pass on information from memory. It is this ability that defines what it is to be human more than anything else and accounts for most of what we see in the world today in terms of science, technology, language, beliefs, art, music, and architecture etc. All of this came from AS, the substitution of knowledge for physical sensation. Although we still have access to physical sensation it is now a fraction of what it was before the substitution took place. The result of this is that reality as it is is not enough it needs to be enhanced, it is enhanced through the use of drugs, alcohol, sex and various forms of mind entertainment. It is enhanced most of all through the use of stories we tell ourselves that are used to create drama and meaning in our lives. At this point in time this substitution is so prevalent that the human race has become completely lost and unaware of the true problem; the substitution of knowledge for physical sensation. Rather than see this we look for other forms of substitution to explain what our problems are, this is blood washing blood or the ego trying to solve the problem it has itself created by creating another problem.